3 DaYS iN VeNiCe oF THe eaST (BHG III)

>> Thursday, August 30, 2007

400 tahun selepas penubuhannya, kerajaan Ayutthaya ini telah berjaya meluaskan tanah jajahannya sehingga membentuk kerajaan Siam yang saiznya lebih kurang sama besar dengan saiz negara Thailand pada masa kini. Kerajaan ini mempunyai hubungan yang rapat dengan India, China, Vietnam, Jepun & Parsi. Kemudian, mulai kurun ke-16, kerajaan ini meluaskan hubungannya dengan negara-negara Barat pula seperti Portugis, Sepanyol, Belanda & Perancis. Raja kerajaan Ayutthaya yang bernama Narai yang memerintah pada pertengahan kurun ke-17 mempunyai hubungan yang rapat dengan Raja Perancis pada waktu itu iaitu Louis XIV. Pada tahun 1750an & 1760an, kerajaan Burma yang merupakan musuh utama kerajaan Ayutthaya telah membuat beberapa serangan ke atas kerajaan Ayutthaya. Akhirnya, pada tahun 1767, kerajaan Burma telah berjaya menawan pusat pemerintahan kerajaan Ayutthaya & keturunan diraja Ayutthaya turut dihapuskan. Dengan itu, tamatlah riwayat kerajaan Ayutthaya yang telah wujud selama lebih 400 tahun lamanya.

Walau bagaimanapun, pada tahun 1769, seorang jeneral yang bernama Taksin telah berjaya menyatukan kembali kerajaan Siam yang berpusat di Thonburi & kemudiannya melantik dirinya sebagai Raja. Namun, dia akhirnya dituduh gila, dipenjarakan & dikenakan hukuman bunuh pada tahun 1782. Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke kemudiannya menjadi pengganti kepada Taksin & menggelarkan dirinya sebagai Rama I. Rama I adalah Raja pertama dalam dinasti Chakri yang memerintah Thailand. Dinasti Chakri masih lagi memerintah Thailand sehingga ke hari ini. Pada tahun yang sama perlantikannya sebagai Raja Siam, Rama I telah mengasaskan bandar Bangkok & menjadikannya sebagai ibu kota kerajaannya yang baru, menggantikan Thonburi. Pada tahun 1790an, Burma telah berjaya dikalahkan & dihalau sepenuhnya dari bumi Siam.

Semenjak awal kurun ke-19 lagi, kerajaan Siam telah menjalinkan hubungan dengan negara-negara Barat yang menjajah di rantau Asia Tenggara, terutamanya British. Kerajaan Siam telah menandatangani perjanjian persefahaman dengan British pada tahun 1826 yang menandakan pengiktirafan kerajaan Siam terhadap penjajahan British di rantau Asia Tenggara. Dengan perjanjian itu, kerajaan Siam terselamat daripada penjajahan Barat. Hubungan diplomatik dengan Amerika Syarikat pula mula dijalinkan pada tahun 1833.

Sewaktu pemerintahan Raja Siam yang bernama Mongkut & anaknya, Chulalongkorn, hubungan Siam dengan negara-negara Barat semakin akrab. Sebuah filem yang dibintangi oleh Chow Yun Fat, Jodie Foster & beberapa orang pelakon Malaysia yang bertajuk Anna And The King ada menceritakan bagaimana Raja Mongkut mempelawa seorang guru Bahasa Inggeris dari British untuk mengajar kaum-kerabatnya. Pada tahun 1909, kerajaan Siam yang pada waktu itu diperintah oleh Chulalongkorn telah menandatangani satu perjanjian dengan British. Perjanjian tersebut menandakan sempadan Siam dengan Tanah Melayu yang pada waktu itu dijajah oleh British. Perjanjian yang tidak adil ini telah menyebabkan negeri-negeri Melayu seperti Pattani, Yala, Narathiwat & Satun jadi ke tangan Siam. Perjanjian dengan kerajaan Perancis pula menandakan sempadan Siam dengan Kemboja & Laos yang dijajah oleh Perancis pada waktu itu.

Filem Anna And The King

Raja Mongkut

Raja Chulalongkorn

Pada tahun 1932, sistem pemerintahan Siam telah ditukarkan daripada sistem Raja Mutlak kepada Raja Berpelembagaan. Raja Siam yang memerintah pada waktu itu ialah Prajadhipok. Pada tahun 1949, nama ‘Siam’ secara rasminya ditukar kepada ‘Thailand’ yang bermaksud ‘negara yang bebas’. Thailand sememangnya adalah satu-satunya negara di rantau Asia Tenggara yang tidak dijajah oleh mana-mana kuasa Barat. Pada masa kini, Thailand diperintah oleh Raja yang bernama Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX) yang merupakan Ketua Negara yang paling lama memerintah di dunia, iaitu mencecah 51 tahun pada tahun ini.

Raja Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX)


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