HiSToRY oF iSLaM iN SPaiN

>> Sunday, April 04, 2010



This is also a 'selingan' entry. I just wanted to update my blog with something. This article is actually an old article which I wrote few years ago. I decided to publish it again so that those who haven't read it will have a chance to do so. History of Islam in Spain is truly amazing & should be known & learnt by everyone. I also embedded 2 interesting documentary videos regarding this entry. So, enjoy reading this article & watching the 2 videos. InsyaAllah, "Travelog Andalusia" will be my second book. :)

Many of us know how Islam was really flourishing in Europe for a period of 800 years (711-1492), particularly in the Southern part of Spain or better known as the region of Andalusia during the period of Medieval Time or Middle Ages or also known as the Dark Ages according to the Westerners. Everything began in the year 711 when an Umayyad General from North Africa (modern day Morocco) named Tariq bin Ziyad & his army crossed the strait that separating the African & European continents (modern day Strait of Gibraltar) & landed in the land of Hispania (modern day Iberian Peninsular which consists of Spain & Portugal) which at that time was ruled by the cruel & barbaric Visigoths. In just a matter of few years, Tariq bin Ziyad & his army managed to defeat the Visigoths & conquered most of the Iberian peninsular. They then called the new conquered land as Al-Andalus or Andalusia in English.

For almost 800 years, Spain was under the light of Islam. Cities like Cordoba, Granada, Seville & Toledo were the modernest cities in the whole Europe at that time. In Cordoba, the capital city of Islamic Empire in Spain, people live in proper houses made of bricks & there were even street lightings & running waters while people in other part of Europe were still living in wooden houses & mud huts, suffering from the feudalism system & tension from the Catholic Church. Religion, knowledge & culture were the top priorities of the Muslim people back in those years. Names like Ibn Rusyd (Averroes), Al-Zahrawi (Albucasis), Ibn Bajjah (Avempace), Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar), Ibn Al-Baitar, Ibn Jubayr, Ibn Tufail (Abubacer), Al-Jayyani, Al-Zarqali (Arzachel), Al-Majriti & many more were so famous even until now because of their knowledge & contributions to science, music, philosophy etc.


Map of Andalusia in 11th Century

Nevertheless, this great empire was gradually getting weaker & weaker from days to days & it slowly broke up into several individual kingdoms, ruled by different rulers & became rivals among each other. This was seen as a great opportunity by the Catholic kingdoms of Northern Spain to reconquer the land of Spain from the Muslims. Their mission was called 'Reconquista' which means Reconquest in English. From time to time, one by one Muslim cities like Cordoba, Seville, Toledo & many more fell into their hands. In the year 1492, Granada, the last Muslim's stronghold in Spain also eventually fell into the hands of Ferdinand II of Aragon & his queen, Isabella of Castille. This means Catholic kingdoms of Northern Spain have officially succeeded with their mission to reconquer the land of Spain for the Catholic people from the Muslims. And they eventually forced all Muslims & Jews who lived in Spain to convert to Catholicism. This order was called as 'Inquisición' or Inquisition in English. It was established to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms & also as an act of cleanliness of blood in Spain. Those who didn't want to convert were expelled from Spain & have their assets seized. Some were even killed. It was indeed a very ruthless action.

Islamic civilisation in Spain has left us with amazing architectures which among them are Mezquita Cathedral in Cordoba & Alhambra in Granada. Mezquita (Spanish word for mosque) was not actually a cathedral. It was originally a mosque before it was transformed into a cathedral. It was once the 2nd biggest mosque in the world after Masjidil Haram in Mecca & is perhaps the most accomplished monument of the Umayyad Dynasty in Spain. The construction of the mosque started in 784 & was completed in 987. In 1236, it was eventually transformed into a Catholic cathedral during the Spanish Reconquista. Meanwhile, Alhambra which is situated in Granada was a palace & fortress complex of the Muslim rulers of Granada. The constructions of the buildings were completed in the middle of 14th century & it finally fell into the hands of King Ferdinand II of Aragon & Queen Isabella of Castile in 1492.


Mezquita from afar, Cordoba


Mezquita, Cordoba


Interior of Mezquita, Cordoba


Alhambra from afar, Granada


Interior of Alhambra, Granada


Interior of Alhambra, Granada

This is just a short story from the history of Islam in Spain. To those who are interested to know more about it, I'd like to recommend you guys to watch these 2 documentaries that I’ve attached below. It is important to know that without Islamic civilisation in Spain back in the Middle Ages, there won't be Renaissance & there won't even be a modern & civilised Europe that we see these days. All the knowledge that they have today owe it all to the Islamic Spain. Nevertheless, some still neglect this.

So, enjoy watching these 2 documentaries.

p/s: To all Malaysian students who are currently studying in Europe, I highly recommend u all to spend at least 7 days in Spain, particularly the Southern region (Andalusia). You wont regret a second of it. Spain will amaze u. Trust me. There's no word to express its beauty & uniqueness. :)

1) AN ISLAMIC HISTORY OF EUROPE


2) WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


21 buah komen:

Nadhirah Ahmad Sunday, April 4, 2010 at 8:32:00 PM GMT+8  

mmg tepesona dgn tamadun islam di spain. hebatnya khlifah2 dlu

mama ju, Sunday, April 4, 2010 at 10:14:00 PM GMT+8  

salam anakanda

Mama tunggu buku tu.
Cantiknya kat situ.

Chit Ana Monday, April 5, 2010 at 1:13:00 AM GMT+8  

travelog andalusia?bagus2..ana tunggu buku ke 2 ya.xsabar nak ketahui lebih lanjut lagi dlm buku tentang sejarah islam di sana

Wawan Saini Monday, April 5, 2010 at 3:25:00 PM GMT+8  

salam sahabat a.k.a teman kuh..
travelog andalusia..
saya mahu jadi penulis jemputan leh??
wakkaka..
doc,balik cepat/.

Miecyber Monday, April 5, 2010 at 7:03:00 PM GMT+8  

Semuga Tamaddun Islam menguasai Eropah kembali suatu hari nanti..

JHaZKiTaRo Monday, April 5, 2010 at 11:15:00 PM GMT+8  

nadhirah ahmad:
tamadun islam di spain sememangnya amat hebat.. ramai yg tidak tahu..

mama ju:
wsalam.. insyaAllah akan dikeluarkan nanti.. :) yup.. bumi andalusia mmg sgt cantik

chit ana:
insyaAllah akan dikeluarkan nanti.. sabar ye.. :)

wawan saini:
wsalam sahabat aka teman ku.. hahah.. memang daku akan perlukan kamu utk siapkan travelog andalusia itu.. nanti kite berbincang keyh.. huhu.. ye ye.. nak balik laa ni.. sabar ek.. heh..

miecyber:
insyaAllah.. Allah Maha Mengetahui..

Wan A. Rafar Tuesday, April 6, 2010 at 11:08:00 AM GMT+8  

Satu catatan yang sungguh mengharukan dan penuh nostalgia. Suatu hari nanti, mungkin saya juga akan ke sana, insya Allah.

Rui Friday, April 9, 2010 at 10:33:00 PM GMT+8  

salam bro..

congrats, smart2 juga gambar dari pihak anda..

keep on posting.. he he

samanosuke_04 Tuesday, April 13, 2010 at 9:14:00 PM GMT+8  

fooh!! nie tempat yang aku bakal pegi nie.. aku nak ikot kelanatravel (macam nie ke nama die?) yang ader kat UK tue.. nak pegi tempat2 nielaaa.. taun depan

Khadijah Zek Wednesday, April 14, 2010 at 11:17:00 AM GMT+8  

dulu ada buat presentation tajuk Andalusia. then baru la tahu kisah2 pasal andalusia. memang menarik sangat. terpesona sangat bila tengok gambar dekat al-hambra.kalau ada rezeki memang nak pergi...

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